Kinetic energy is translated into heat energy:The sudden application of brakes when a vehicle is travelling at100km/h, generates enough heat to raise the temperature of twoliters of water from 0°C to boiling (100°C).What is a brake?◆ A device that causes a vehicle to decelerate and/or ceasemotion by converting kinetic energy into heat energy utilizingfriction◆ An important security component that brings a vehicle to a haltsafelyWhen brake pedal is pressed:1. The hydraulic pressure of the brake fluid builds2. The pressure is transferred into the brake mechanism3. The transferred pressure causes:Disc brake: the pads clamp the rotorDrum brake: the lining (friction material lining the shoe) ispushed into and applies pressure to the drum4. Friction due to the above process converts kinetic energy intoheat, thereby causing the vehicle to decelerate and eventuallystop moving.CalipersRotorPadsFront tire brakesRear tire brakesBrake pipes> >> >>>>>>> >>>> > >>>>>>Rotor(rotating body)Pads(frictionmaterials)Pistons(pressingmechanism)Lining(frictionmaterial)Drum(rotating body)Pistons(pressingmechanism)Disc brakes (usually used in passenger cars)Pads clamp rotor, stopping its spinningDrum brakes (usually used in buses and trucks)Lining is pushed into the drum from the inside, stopping its spinningBrakes fall roughly into two categories, namely, disc brakes and drum brakes. Disc brakes deliver a stable braking force for high-speed running.Drum brakes are best suited to bringing heavier automobiles to a halt.Front tires: disc brakesRear tires: disc brakes(1)(2)(3)(4)PadsRotorLiningDrumHydraulic pressure pistonHydraulic pressure piston② ③ ②③① ①Brakes Save Lives: Ensuring Absolute SafetyMechanism of delivering unparalleled controlOur ProductsFriction Materials for BrakesA brake is a mechanism that presses friction material against a rotor, stoppingits spinning. Friction materials comprise three main components:1. Reinforcements to enhance strength2. Friction modifiers to enhance performance and reduce noise3. Binders to form and stick together these compound materialsBecause the performance requirements for the friction materials used inpads and brake linings depend on vehicle type, the raw materials and formulationsused vary. The formulations also vary between local markets. In Europe,the most common are low-steel and semi-metallic pads, which perform well athigh speed and temperatures but generate significant noise and brake dust dueto the high level of abrasion. In Japan, non-asbestos pads, which featurereduced noise and abrasion, are most common. Both types of pads are used inNorth America.■ Pads Should be Replaced When They Thin to about 4mmThe friction materials of new brake pads are about 10mm thick. About 7mm to8mm of that can be used. For safety, pads should be regularly checked andreplaced when they have thinned to 4mm or less.Components of Friction MaterialsFriction MaterialsCategory Purpose MaterialsReinforcements Ensure strength and resilienceOrganic fiberSteel fiberInorganic fiberMetallic fiberFrictionmodifiersAdjust control and wear performanceto increase reliabilityLubricantsGrinding materialsMetallic dustFilling materialsBindersForm and stick together the compoundraw materialsThermosettingresins Safe:6mm to 10mmCaution (time for replacement):under 4mmDanger(immediate replacement needed):under 2mmEach of the four tires of a car may be equipped with brakes. Thebrakes can be configured in a number of different ways: disc brakeson the front and rear tires, only drum brakes, or a combination ofthe two.