FNC Finished RotorsAkebono supplies rotors for trucks produced by U.S.-basedGeneral Motors Company. These rotors are finished using the ferriticnitrocarburizing (FNC) process and thus deliver superior brakingperformance as well as low noise and vibration while boastingan industry-leading product life which in turn contributes toresource savings. Moreover since FNC finishing provides greaterabrasion resistance it also reduces the generation of dust whichnot only often mars the appearance of wheels but poses an environmentalburden.Technology to Control Noise and VibrationWhen it comes to making brakes finding ways to control thenoise and vibrations that may make the driving experienceunpleasant for the end-user is of the utmost importance.Akebono pays particular attention to what it calls NVH (noise vibration and harshness or vibrations caused by unevenness inroad surfaces) which makes for a less pleasant braking experience.Noise itself refers to the sound generated when vibration causedby the friction between the pads and rotors is transmitted throughthe calipers and resonates throughout the brake.Noise and vibration are affected by many factors includingdriving conditions speed brake temperature quality of componentmaterials configuration of the parts and rotor speed.Akebono uses simulations of various conditions to attempt to predictnoise and vibration. This enables the Company to predictnoise from the design stage and thus allows the number of prototypesneeded for testing to be decreased contributing to bothenergy and resource savings.Initiatives at the Design and Development StageAkebono is working to deliver brakes that are friendly to both people and the environment by creating products free of environmentally hazardoussubstances while pursuing longer product lives.Developing Products Free of EnvironmentallyHazardous SubstancesIn North America regulations on environmentally hazardous substanceshave been tightened due to anxiety over the impact ofbrake dust on the ecosystems of rivers and gulfs.In response Akebono is striving to develop technologies thatreduce the volume of brake dust generated from the use of frictionmaterials while extending the product life of brake pads.Also Akebono promotes the development of products with alower environmentally hazardous substance content. In accordancewith in-house guidelines which set forth stricter regulationson brake raw materials than required by law Akebonopainstakingly examines these materials’ possible impact on theenvironment and work environment even from the product designand development stages.Satisfying U.S. Regulations on Chemicals Used inBrake Friction MaterialsIn 2014 new regulations were enforced in California and thestate of Washington the United States setting limits on copperand other specified substance content in brake pads linings andfriction materials produced on and after January 1 2014.Moreover these regulations oblige manufacturers to label theirpads and linings using Friction Materials Edge Code Markings thatindicate compliance. In response a number of Akebono’s businessunits including its U.S. Japanese and Asian production bases thatmanufacture friction materials destined for the American market as well as development quality assurance sales and productionengineering sections worldwide have striven to ensure compliancewith these requirements through across-the-board collaborationthat has resulted in their functioning truly as “One Team” or“One akebono” working together toward “One Goal.” Lookingahead we will painstakingly continue to implement measuresaimed at complying with state laws and other regulations such aspackage labeling statutes.An FNC finished rotorA brake pad labeled with Friction Materials Edge Code Markings

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